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The Olympic games led to standard international rules, with the Féderation Internationale d'Escrime founded in 1913.
Modern boxing originates with Jack Broughton's rules in the 18th century, and reaches its present form with the Marquess of Queensberry Rules of 1867.
The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology and the martial arts.
Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, and to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual.
European swordsmanship always had a sportive component, but the duel was always a possibility until World War I.
Modern sport fencing began developing during the 19th century as the French and Italian military academies began codifying instruction.
Similarly, modern Western martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat or singlestick, and modern competitive archery.
Many martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
Numerous systems are reputed to have been founded, disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns.